- Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science
- Division of Energy & Environment Technology
- chapter and author info
- Capabilities and Example Applications
In recent past the climatic change is detected by corresponding changes in the settlement and agricultural patterns. The climatic change resulted to rise and also downfall of various civilizations. Session on : Energy conservation. Energy conversation is the process of reducing demand on supply and enabling that supply to begin to rebuild itself. The best way of doing this is to replace the energy used with an alternative. Energy conservation technique is to reduce demand and replenish supplies.
They have to protect, develop and use alternative energy sources and clean up the damage from energy processes. Energy conservation also reduces the need of energy services and result in improvement and increased environmental quality, national security, higher savings and personal finance security.
It also lowers the energy costs. By reducing wastage and losses, improving efficiency through upgraded techniques and improved operation and maintenance energy can be conserved. Carbon taxes are employed by some countries to motivate energy users to reduce their consumption.
Tiered energy tax is employed by state of California where every user can get baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax. These programmes are created to set and protect poorer households by creating a high tax burden for the customers who uses high energy consumption. Airtight thermal insulated construction is the most prominent factor determining the home efficiency in both warm and cold climate conditions.
Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science
To minimize the flow of heat to and fro the home insulation is added but it may be labour-intensive to fit to an existing home. Asian governments have implemented a range of subsides such as grants, cheap credit, tax exemptions and co- financing with public sector funds to encourage energy efficiency across several sectors. Session on : Waste-to-energy. The process of generating energy in the form of heat and electricity from primary treatment of waste or process of waste to a fuel source is known as waste-to-energy.
Generation of electricity and heat is done directly through combustion or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, ethanol or synthesis fuel. Development technologies foe processing residual solid waste has only become a focus attention in recent years stimulated by the search for more efficient energy recovery. Incineration is the main method of the energy recovery. Other new emerging technologies are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. These technologies have a great potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel but this is possible through direct combustion itself.
The reason behind this is separation of corrosive components from the converted fuel by allowing higher combustion temperatures i. Gasification , Thermal depolymerisation , Pyrolysis and Plasma arc gasification are some thermal techniques. Session on : Energy Recycling. Recycling is the practise of recovering used materials from the waste stream and then incorporating those same materials into manufacturing process. Successful recycling also depends on manufactures making products from recovered materials and in turn consumers purchasing products made of recyclable materials.
It is the energy recovery process of utilizing energy that would normally be wasted, and converting it into electricity and thermal energy.
Division of Energy & Environment Technology
Energy recycling increases efficiency and decreases energy costs and greenhouse gas pollution. This is to mitigate global warming profit. Waste heat recovery, waste recovery from air conditioning, combined heat and power are some of the forms of energy recycling. The technology for solution to improvement of energy efficiency for stationary power generation industry is electro turbo compounding ETC. Recycling is directly connected to renewable energy as it helps in sustaining the natural resource of the earth.
By waste batteries removed from electric vehicles will total 95gig watt hour worth. Many initiatives are under way to prepare for arrival of this new type of waste. But most in the cases, the solutions are work in progress at best. A department of energy study found the potential for , megawatts of CHP in US and a LBNL study identified about megawatts that could be obtained from industrial waste energy.
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- Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability.
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Session on : Bioremediation. The process of treating contaminated media, including water, subsurface material and soil, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade target pollutants is called bioremediation.
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It is less expensive and more sustainable in many cases. Another similar approach is biological treatment which is used to treat wastes including waste water, solid waste and industrial waste. This technique involves the use of organisms to induce eliminate or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. Technologies are going to be sometimes classified as situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating contaminated material to be treated at a point location, whereas ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere.
However, not all contaminants unit of measurement merely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. Phytoremediation is useful in these circumstances as results of natural plants which are able to bio-accumulate these toxins in their above-ground parts.
chapter and author info
Most of the processes involve oxidation -reduction reactions that means a chemical species donate an electron to different species that accepts electron. Electron donors include sugars, fats, alcohols, natural organic material, fuel hydrocarbons and organic pollutants. Session on: Smart grid. An electric grid which includes a number of operational and energy measures including smart appliances, smart meters, renewable energy resources and energy efficient resources is known as smart grid.
The important aspects of the smart grid are electronic power conditioning, control of the production and electricity distributions are important aspects of the smart grid. In in Great Barrington, Massachusetts the first alternating current power grid system was installed. In the 20th century local grids grew and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. In 21st century opportunities to take advantage of improvement in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become prominent.
Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally. Over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for more robust energy that is less dependent on centralized power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets. Session on : Green Engineering.
The design of products and processes by applying financially feasible products and processes in a manner that gradually decreases the amount of pollution that is generated by a source is called Green engineering. It approaches the minimization of exposure to potential hazards and protecting human health without damaging the economic efficiency and viability. Green energy approaches design from a systematic perspective which means that number of professional disciplines must be integrated. Green engineering includes land use planning, architecture , social sciences and design fields.
The system approach employed in green engineering is similar to value engineering. Efficiency is an engineering and thermodynamic term for ratio of an input to an output of energy and mass within a system. Session on : Green Energy. Green Energy principally involves natural energetic processes which are able to be controlling with a little or no pollution. Anaerobic digestion , geothermal power , wind power , small-scale hydropower, alternative energy, biomass power, recurrent event power, wave power, and many sorts of nuclear power constitutes to the green energy.
Capabilities and Example Applications
Some definitions may be power derived from the combustion of waste. In several countries with enterprise arrangements, electricity selling arrangements build it attainable for patrons shop for green electricity from their utility of a green power provider. Once energy is being purchased from the electricity network, the power that reaches the customer will not primarily be generated from green energy sources. The native utility or state power pool purchases their electricity from electricity producers.
World Health Organization might be generating from fuel , nuclear or renewable energy sources.
Green energy customers either obligates the utility firms to increase the number of inexperienced energy that they purchase from the or directly fund the green energy through a green power provider. Session on: Environmental Toxicology. Environmental toxicology is that branch of science which is concerned with the adverse effects of physical, chemical and biological agents on living organisms. Sources with the objective of Energy Storage and the efficient energy usage, the usage of this sustainable energy can decrease the dependence on primary source of energy and thereby preventing the climate changes.
This sustainable form of energy not only fulfils with the threat of runaway climate change, it is becoming important to utilize the renewable the present need but also focus on the future needs. Biomass, wind energy, hydro energy , and geothermal is having the higher potential with advantage of inexhaustible nature. With one of the highest, most vibrant and transformative sectors, Renewable energy has highly complimented in the global economy.
With the upcoming innovations, technological improvements Energy and improvement in the design of framework renewable energy is growing worldwide. With the contribution of wind energy and solar energy there has been massive increase in the renewable capacity growth that has reached to Gigawatts GW. It has overtaken the power capacity of coal. Electricity generation is the greatest application of renewable energy.
With the crossing population of billion it has become necessary to deal with the threat of climate change through the deployment of renewable resources. With the higher availability and cheap price renewable energy is in great demand in the market. Renewable energy sources are most given importance when compared to fossil fuels like coal, petroleum. Europe, Asia Pacific, North America, and rest of the world are divided regionally by global renewable energy market. Europe and Asia Pacific are leading largest market for renewable energy with advancement in technology and new forms of energy across the region.
However continuous development of new technologies in renewable source and increased government funding offer new opportunities for market expansion. By end it was classified into residential, commercial, and industrial. Why Switzerland. Switzerland has taken a strong decision to phase out nuclear power.